《城市发展研究》2010年12期

时间:2011-03-14  来源:  作者:

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基于问卷调查的北京市居民通勤情况分析

王德起  许菲菲  首都经济贸易大学城市

[内容摘要]:通勤问题不仅影响着居民的“幸福指数”,而且还决定着城市的运行效率以及城市空间结构的优化,因此是提升居民生存质量,提高城市运行效率继而整体功能的关键切入点。近年来北京市经济社会发展取得了突出的成就,但交通拥堵、通勤不畅,已经成为影响居民生活质量、困扰城市可持续发展的严重问题。本文通过问卷调查和访谈法,设置通勤时间、通勤距离、通勤类型以及居民满意度等指标,揭示北京市通勤状况及存在的问题,从而为城市空间结构调整、功能更新、城市交通规划以及居民职住均衡抉择,提供决策依据。

[关键词]:北京市;通勤问题;问卷调查;职住均衡

A Study on the Commuting Problems in Beijing

----- Based on the Investigation to the Citizens of Beijing

WANG Deqi XU Feifei

[Abstract] Commuting has been regarded as an essential factor, for it not only affects the “happiness index” of the citizens, but also affects the spatial function and running efficiency. In recent years, Beijing has gained great achievements in social-economy aspects, otherwise, the big traffic congest problem has made the citizens feel un-convenient and therefore constricted the healthy development of the city. Using the statistical tool, the thesis will reveal the commuting problems of Beijing by setting the related index as the commuting time, distance, patterns, and the satisfaction of the citizens towards the traffic, so that some relevant suggestions may be given to the stakeholders.

[Key Words] Beijing; Commuting problem; Questionnaire; Working-Residential balance

 

纽约城市土地利用结构及其分区特征分析

Land Use Structure in New York City and Character in Different Sections

(陆军 宋吉涛,北京大学,100871)

摘要:本文研究了纽约市整体土地利用结构、各用地类型的空间布局以及各行政分区用地结构与人均占有量四个方面的内容。发现纽约市与中国的高等级城市土地利用结构和布局之间共性与差异性并存。其中在空间布局方面,居住用地、工业用地差异性更加明显,而商业用地等其他用地类型共性比较明显;不同分区之间与区域功能、人口密度、交通通达能力等要素有直接关系的住宅用地、开敞空间/娱乐用地和商住混合用地等用地类型差异较大。通过分析发现,容积率和建筑密度等指标将发挥重大的作用,需要结合多指标深入分析城市土地利用结构。

Abstract:This paper studies land use structure and spatial distribution of whole city in New York, the character of land use structure and occupancy per people in different sections. By comparing, we find commonness and otherness exist synchronously in New York and super cities in China. Land used for residence, industry show much more difference, but that for commerce shows more commonness on spatial distribution. Types of land having direct relations with region function, people density and traffic accessibility, such as residential, public open space/recreational and residential/commercial land show great difference in sections. By analyzing, we find some index such as floor area ratio and building density would contribute to the analysis in this field.

关键词:土地利用结构;分区特征;纽约

Keywords:Land use structure; characters of different sections; New York

 

城市化与水资源开发利用的互动机理及调控模式

鲍超,方创琳

(中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京,100101)

摘要:城市化与水资源开发利用均是影响城市与区域可持续发展的关键因素,二者之间存在着相互作用与反馈的机制。一方面,城市化引起区域用水总量、用水结构、用水效率等发生变化,并对这种变化产生胁迫与优化作用;另一方面,水资源开发利用对区域城市化具有支撑和约束作用,在水资源短缺地区可以成为城市化速度和规模的重要决定因素。本文探讨了二者之间的响应与反馈机理,并据此提出了调控模式与主要建议。

关键词:城市化;城市用水;水资源开发;响应与反馈;调控模式

Interaction mechanism and control modes on urbanization

and water resources exploitation and utilization

BAO Chao, FANG Chuang-lin

(Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China)

Abstract: Urbanization and water resources exploitation and utilization are both key influencing factors for urban and regional sustainable development. They interact and feed back with each other. On the one hand, urbanization leads to changes of the amount, structure and efficency for regional water utilization, and bring positive and negative effects on these changes. On the other hand, water resources exploitation and utilization can sustain and constrain the process of urbanization. It can become an important determinant for the speed and scale of urbanization in water deficient regions. The response and feedback mechanism between urbanization and water resources exploitation and utilization is discussed. Subsequently, some control and adjustment modes and suggestions are put forward.

Key Words: urbanization; urban water use; water resources exploitation; response and feedback; control and adjustment mode


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